What Is The Brain?
All your thoughts, feelings, memories, emotions, wishes and dreams happen in one place inside your body, your brain. It’s the place where you are conscious and aware of what’s going on around you. It’s the place where you think, imagine, have ideas, daydream. Your brain is also the control centre for your whole body. It tells your heart to beat, you lungs to breathe air, your stomach to digest food, and it controls hundreds of the other inner body processes. And your brain makes your muscles work, so that you can move around and carry out skilled tasks such as drawing or riding bicycle. The brain can do these amazing jobs because it is connected to all parts of your body, by an incredibly complicated network of nerves. These nerves look like thin pieces of shiny thing. They carry messages, in the form of tiny electrical signals called nerve impulses, between the brain and every other body part.
The brain looks like a giant, wrinkled walnut. It’s most obvious part, making up about nine tenths of its whole size, it called the cerebrum. It is divided into two halves, known as cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere is covered by a pink-gray layer known as the cerebral cortex, which is where thinking happens. Under the cortex is a thick white layer, the cerebral medulla. At the rear of the brain is another wrinkled part, but much smaller than the cerebrum. This is known as the cerebellum. At the brain’s base is a narrow part, the brain stem, which tapers into the spinal cord in the upper neck.
The brain fills the top half of the head. It is well protected by the strong skull bones around it. The brain’s base tapers into a long thick nerve called the spinal cord. Nerves branch from the cord and spread out through the body. These peripheral nerves divide and become smaller, and reach every part, even the fingertips and toes.
Different patches or areas of the cortex receive nerve messages from the body’s senses, such as the eyes and ears. These are cortical sensory centers. Another patch of the cortex, the motor area or center, sends out message to the muscles so that the body can move.